Protect yourself from rabies
Remember: don't touch, feed or move wildlife, including young, sick or injured, and avoid animals that are behaving strangely.
If you find a stray animal, report it to your local Animal Control Services:
If you had a potential exposure due to an animal bite or scratch or had contact with wildlife, wash wounds with soap and water and seek medical attention immediately.
Rabies is a deadly disease in both humans and animals.
In Ontario, the law requires the vaccination of all cats and dogs that are at least 3 months old. You can be fined for not vaccinating your pet.
Vaccinating your pet
Your local veterinary clinic can vaccinate your pet during a regular visit. Vaccinations are effective for either 1 or 3 years, depending on the vaccine used by your veterinarian. Help is available if you are in financial need. Call 311 for details.
Protecting your family and pets
To best protect your family against rabies:
- Teach children to avoid unfamiliar cats and dogs.
- Observe wildlife from a distance.
- Take measures to prevent wildlife from taking up residence in your home or on your property.
- Do not attempt to relocate any wild animals.
- Remember to collect animal owner contact information if you have been scratched or bitten by someone’s pet.
- Report all animal bites, scratches and possible exposures to the Health Department as soon as possible.
To best protect your pets against rabies:
- Keep your dogs and cats up to date with their rabies vaccinations.
- Don't allow your pets to roam free; keep them indoors at night to prevent contact with wild animals.
Avoid animals that are behaving strangely and report strays to Animal Control Services.
Risk of rabies from squirrels, hamsters, guinea pigs and rabbits
Small rodents (such as hamsters, guinea pigs, rats and mice) and lagomorphs (such as rabbits) are rarely found to be infected with rabies, and have not been known to cause human rabies in Canada.
However, notify the Health Department following an incident with these animals.
Adopting and Importing Pets from Overseas
There are important considerations to remember and follow when adopting and importing pets from overseas to ensure animals and humans in Halton Region and Ontario are protected against diseases such as rabies. While the risk of rabies transmission in Canada from dogs and cats is considered to be low, the risk is considerably higher in many other countries. Click here for a list of countries recognized by Canada as rabies free for cats and dogs (external link). According to the World Health Organization (external link), rabies infection continues to cause tens of thousands of human deaths globally every year, mainly in Asia and Africa, and in up to 99% of these cases, domestic dogs are responsible for rabies virus transmission to humans.
If you and/or your family are interested in adopting a dog from a breeder, rescue organization, or shelter, there is important information you should consider in order to avoid importing or accepting a sick and/or infectious dog that may pose a risk to the your health, the health of others and the health of other local animals here in Ontario.
There are also animal welfare concerns associated with transporting dogs from overseas. Imported dogs can also have significant behavioural issues if they were not properly socialized and never lived in a home prior to being adopted, which can lead to an increased risk of biting.
Before adopting a dog, especially from another country:
- Review the Canadian Food Inspection Agency's requirements for importing animals(external link) from other counties
- Be aware of the potential issues that may arise after adoption (for example, acute or chronic infectious diseases, unresolvable behavioural issues)
- Ensure the organization from which you are receiving the dog is a reputable business/source (request references, speak to others who have adopted through the same agency, or consult your own veterinarian)
- Ask about the dog’s medical history, including vaccinations, deworming, and prior treatment for any diseases or conditions, including injuries or illness. Ensure all medical records will be provided at the time of adoption.
- Ask about where the animal lived and how it was cared for prior to importation. For example, was it a stray or did it spend time in a kennel / shelter (where it would be exposed to lots of other dogs), was it an owned dog that primarily lived outside (where it would have exposure to wildlife or livestock), or was it an owned dog that is used to living indoors (and would be used to being around people).
- Talk to your veterinarian about specific disease risks that may be a concern based on the dog’s country of origin, and arrange to have the dog examined by your veterinarian as soon as possible after arrival.
After adopting a dog, especially from another country:
- To help protect people and pets from rabies, Ontario law (Regulation 567, Rabies Immunization(external link)) requires animal owners to vaccinate dogs, cats and ferrets over 3 months of age against rabies. The vaccine must be administered by a veterinarian registered in the province of Ontario and with a rabies vaccine licensed for use by Health Canada. If you have imported an animal from outside of Ontario, you must ensure it is vaccinated against rabies in Ontario as required by Regulation 567, Rabies Immunization, even if the animal has a current rabies vaccination certificate from another jurisdiction.
Additional precautions to follow include:
- Have the dog examined by a veterinarian as soon as possible after arrival, in order to detect any signs of active or chronic infection or injury. Your veterinarian can also make recommendations for any additional vaccinations, vaccine boosters, diagnostic testing and additional follow up examinations.
- Keep the dog segregated from other animals and high-risk individuals (e.g. people who are immunosuppressed, very young, elderly or pregnant) for 2-4 weeks after arrival to monitor for any signs of illness (including infectious diseases) or significant behavioural concerns.
- Remember that rabies may present in an animal up to six months after it is exposed to the virus from a rabid animal, even if the pet was vaccinated after the exposure.
- Have a behavioural assessment performed by a professional organization.
- Adhere to licensing requirements as required by other local requirements.
The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) is responsible for regulating the importation of animals, including dogs, into Canada. The importation of animals is regulated to prevent the introduction and spread of diseases, such as rabies, that could have adverse health impacts on local animals and people.
The Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) is responsible for conducting inspections on behalf of the CFIA. If an animal is found to be non-compliant with the CFIA's humane transport and/or import requirements, the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) may refuse the animal entry or refer it to the CFIA for further inspection.
Breeders, rescue agencies and shelters should review the CFIA's requirements for importing animals(external link) from other counties. Be aware that new regulatory requirements for importing commercial dogs less than 8 months of age for breeding or resale(external link) (including adoption) came into effect in May 2021.
In addition, these organizations should ensure prospective owners or caretakers of all animals they provide, including imported animals, are given appropriate and sufficient information (see above) to manage any risks to animal and human health.